"I believe the time has now come to revisit a complete ban of assault weapons," Rosenthal said in a press release.
Local politicians contend that assault weapons are "not reasonably necessary to protect an individual's right or self-defense."
The Deerfield Village board unanimously approved the legislation, which is set to take effect on June 13.
Residents who violate the ban by not rescinding their weapons by then will be fined up to $1,000 per day for each offense.
The ordinance could be challenged on constitutional grounds, but a similar law passed in Highland Park, Ill., in 2013 survived in court.