The Cretans and the Early Church

                                                    By

                                                 Dr Ley

 

In the Hellenistic era Crete came under the influence of the Ptolemaic dynasts of Egypt, who established a garrison and naval base at Itanos and ties with other cities. Crete was administered as a joint province with Cyrene from at least the time of Augustus until 295-7. Shortly thereafter, Constantine made it a senatorial province under a consularis [latin] (a Roman governor of a province) in the Diocese of Macedonia in the Prefecture of Illyricum. This arrangement lasted until the seventh century, when the Arabs began their assault on Crete from North Africa.

   Of particular significance for the history of Christianity in Crete is the sizable Jewish population which no doubt formed the basis of the early church there. Numerous ancient authorities attest to Crete's status as one of the flourishing centers of the Diaspora. I Macc. 15:23, for example, cites Gortyna as one of the cities to which the Roman Senate sent its proclamation of 139 BC warning against the molestation of Jews. Philo counted Crete among those regions of the Empire with important Jewish communities; and Josephus, who married a woman from a Cretan Jewish family, considered the Jews of Crete sufficiently numerous to mention them as supporters of the imposter who sought to succeed Herod the Great by impersonating his son, Alexander (Antiquities of the J ews bk.17, 324-8).

 

 

 

The earliest reference to Christianity in Crete is Acts 2:1-41, which describes the conversion of Cretan Jews who were in Jerusalem at Pentecost. A second account is found in the Letter to Titus, where we are told that Paul left Titus on the island (ca. 57) with instructions to organize the church and "appoint elders in every town" (1:5). Titus also describes the qualifications for church leaders and refers to false teachings which threatened their congregations; e.g., "Jewish myths" (1:14) and "genealogies" (2:9). But the extent to which the letter reflects the actual roles of Paul and Titus and the circumstances of the church in the mid-first century is called into question by the majority of NT scholars who consider it a post-Pauline composition. Apart from ancient local tradition which assumed Paul's mission to Crete, regarded Titus as its first bishop and ultimately venerated his relics at Gortyna (Ferguson, 904), we have no other sources for Cretan Christianity in the first century.

Though limited, the historical record suggests that the church in Crete enjoyed steady growth from the second century until the Arab conquest and that the bishops of Gortyna quickly established themselves as its leaders. Gortyna's importance is also indicated by its many ancient churches and status as Crete's richest source of Christian inscriptions.

Our earliest post-biblical source is Eusebius, who refers to the second-century correspondence of Bishop Dionysius of Corinth with the Cretan bishops Philip of Gortyna and Pinytus of Knossos. Eusebius describes Philip as the author of a "very elaborate treatise against Marcion" (HE 4.25) who presided over a church both noted for its virtue and, according to Dionysius, endangered by the errors of heretics (HE 4.23). Of Pinytus, Eusebius tells us that he was a "learned" and "orthodox" theologian who was urged by Dionysius to reconsider the wisdom of the "heavy and compulsory burden" of chastity he had imposed on his congregation (HE 4.23). Eusebius' reference (HE 4.23) to the "other dioceses" in Crete to which Dionysius wrote indicates that Christianity had spread well beyond Gortyna and Knossos by the end of the second century.

The martyrdom of The Ten at Hagioi Deka ("Ten Saints") in the region of Gortyna during the Decian persecution of 250-51 also points to the growth of Christianity in Crete. According to an episcopal letter of 458, the martyrs represented all regions of the island (Schwartz, v. 2, epist. 48, pp. 96-7; Detorakes, 53-94). The participation of Cretan bishops in church councils offers additional evidence. Three bishops -- from Hierapytna, Cydonia and Kissamos -- attended the Council of Sardica in 343. Seven were present at Chalcedon in 451, though four additional sees not represented there are known to have existed by that time. By the eighth century there were twelve dioceses: Gortyna, Hierapytna, Chersonisos, Siteia, Arcades, Sybrita, Knossos, Eleutherna, Lappa, Cydonia, Kissamos, and Kantanos. These included more than seventy churches.

But the eighth century also saw the beginning of important changes. Emperor Leo III's reorganization in 732-3 removed Crete from direct papal authority and brought it within the see of Constantinople. A century later the Arab conquest brought the suppression of Christianity and the destruction of many of the island's churches. In 961 Crete was reclaimed by the Byzantine Empire, only to fall later into the hands of the Venetians. Thus, in the Middle Ages its religious life was shaped by both Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox influences.

 

The most notable figure in the early history of Cretan Christianity is St. Andrew of Crete (ca. 660-740), who distinguished himself as an orator, hymnographer and theologian. Born at Damascus, he was a monk in Jerusalem and a deacon in Constantinople before coming to Crete, where he was elected metropolitan between 692 and 713.

Nearly sixty of his sermons and hymns are known (Geerard, 8170-8228). The former display considerable oratorical skill and refer to the invasions of the Scythians (Bulgarians) and Arabs as well as to Leo III's persecution of the Jews. Andrew's most famous hymn is the "Great Canon" (canon magnus), a lengthy penitential hymn in 250 strophes. As a theologian, Andrew is best known for his interest in the Virgin Mary and, in particular, his view that she was in a unique way a daughter of God. We know, too, that he defended the veneration of images before the Emperor Constantine Copronymos.

The Christian epigraphy of Crete includes more than one hundred Greek inscriptions, nearly all of which belong to the period 300700. Most are sepulchral and tend to offer more information than pagan tombstones about the deceased. About one-fifth are ecclesiastical and give evidence of ancient bishops, archbishops, priests, deacons, subdeacons, presbyters, monks, nuns, readers and a cantor.

While the inscriptions do not offer a coherent picture of early Cretan Christianity, they do indicate certain of its features. Many demonstrate belief in the intercessory powers of the of the Mother of Christ (e.g., Bandy, nos. 9, 85, 86) and the saints (e.g., Bandy, nos. 24, 85, 112). A few tell us the locations of religious communities (at Gortyna, Biannos and Lappa) and preserve the names of monks and nuns ( Bandy, nos. 2, 36, 56, 88, 93). Others give us the occupations of Christians (e.g., horse-doctor, tailor, archive-keeper) and reflect the rise of Christians to such prominent positions as "consul" and "father of the city" in the period after Constantine.

 

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ALERT ALERT

OMG!!! Ruth Bader Ginsburg Voted Best Real-Life Hero At MTV Awards

Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg on Monday was crowned the best real-life hero at the MTV Movie & TV Awards.

The 86-year old judge — whose 2015 biopic The Notorious RBG help cement her as a cultural icon among Liberals — beat out tennis star Serena Williams, WWE wrestler Roman Reigns, and comedian Hannah Gadsby to take him the award.

Though it wasn’t a clean sweep for Ginsburg last night.

The RGB documentary lost the “Best Fight” category for “Ruth Bader Ginsburg vs. Inequality” to “Captain Marvel vs. Minn-Erva.”

The justice was absent from the ceremony in Santa Monica, California.

Last December, Ginsburg had surgery to remove cancerous growths on her left lung. She was released from the hospital in New York four days later and recuperated at home.

Earlier this year, Ginsburg missed three days of arguments, the first time that’s happened since she joined the court in 1993. Still, she was allowed to participate using court briefs and transcripts.

Ginsburg has had two previous bouts with cancer, in 1999 and 10 years later.

Flashback: Ruth Bader Ginsburg: A Pregnant Woman Is Not A ‘Mother’

Celebrated liberal U.S. Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg argued in an opinion released Tuesday that a pregnant woman is not a “mother.”

“[A] woman who exercises her constitutionally protected right to terminate a pregnancy is not a ‘mother’,” Ginsburg wrote in a footnote, which in turn responded to another footnote in the 20-page concurring opinion by Justice Clarence Thomas in the Box v. Planned Parenthood of Indiana and Kentucky Inc. case.

As Breitbart News’ legal editor Ken Klukowski reported, the case concerned a law signed by then-Governor (now Vice President) Mike Pence of Indiana in 2016, which required that the remains of an aborted fetus (or baby) be disposed of by cremation or burial. The law also prohibited abortion on the basis of sex, race, or disability alone.

The Court upheld the first part of the law, but declined to consider the selective-abortion ban until more appellate courts had ruled on it.

In his lengthy opinion — which delighted pro-life advocates, and distressed pro-choice activists — Thomas wrote that “this law and other laws like it promote a State’s compelling interest in preventing abortion from becoming a tool of modern-day eugenics.” He traced the racist and eugenicist beliefs of Planned Parenthood founder Margaret Sanger, and warned that the Court would one day need to wrestle with abortion as form of racial discrimination.

In a footnote, Thomas attacked Ginsberg’s dissenting opinion, which argued the Court should not have deferred to the legal standard used by the litigants in the lower courts, but should have subjected the Indiana law to a more difficult standard instead, since it impacted “the right of [a] woman” to an abortion.

Ginsburg cited no legal authority for her claim that a pregnant woman is not a “mother.” The claim that a fetus is not a child is central to pro-choice arguments.

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